Open allowance horses take the spotlight at Caymanas Park today, in the inaugural running of the Alexander Hamilton Trophy over a mile, to be contested by six starters. Also on the 11-race programme, is the annual renewal of the Mercury Sprint, for native-bred-maiden three-year-old colts and geldings, in which 13 will face the starter. Among them are five first-time runners, including, LOOSE CANNON, MUSKEETOON and UNCLE FREDDIE, who along with MILAGRO, SILENCE and DON CHASSIS should ensure a close contest. The ‘Alex’ Hamilton Trophy, run in honour of the former Jockey Club president who has the distinction of being the oldest active owner in racing, spanning over 50 years, brings together the recent winners PINELOPE, AWESOME DESTINY and ROYAL VIBES in addition to the consistent BLUE DIXIE in an intriguing contest. Although finishing a length third to BLUE DIXIE over this trip, in fast time (1:37.0) last October,, PINELOPE is so highly regarded, that this talented four-year-old filly, should not only start favourite, but notch her second consecutive win with Paul ‘Country’ Francis riding for trainer Patrick Fong. She beat another classy filly CHOO CHOO BLUE by a head over 1400 metres on December 10, closing rapidly from off the pace to land the Betting and Gaming Stakes Trophy. She has worked well in preparation for this race and judging from the progress shown last year, I take her to turn the tables on the Gary Subratie-trained BLUE DIXIE. MILAGRO, who failed narrowly some weeks ago, can definitely go one better at the expense of DON CHASSIS and newcomer MUSKETOON (working well) in the Mercury Sprint. The improving colt who comes from the in-form stables of Anthony “Baba” Nunes, will be ridden by former champion apprentice Linton Steadman and he gets the vote ahead of DON CHASSIS. I also like the talented 3-y-o filly SHE’S A MANEATER to rebound on her seasonal debut in the opening race over 1400 metres, SURE MAN in the third, SILVER SURF in the fourth along with SOY EL SENOR in the fifth and JON MARSHALL , sixth. HIGHLY REGARDED
0Shares0000Wayne Rooney has called on Manchester United’s flops to show respect © GETTY IMAGES NORTH AMERICA/AFP / Patrick McDermottLONDON, United Kingdom, Oct 31 – Wayne Rooney has urged Manchester United’s under-achieving stars to show more respect for their troubled club.United are languishing in eighth place in the Premier League and have made a slow start to their Champions League campaign. Sunday’s 2-1 win over Everton did little to lift the gloom around Old Trafford, with United manager Jose Mourinho under scrutiny following a spluttering run which has seen key players fail to produce consistent performances.Mourinho has clashed with United stars including Paul Pogba, Luke Shaw, Alexis Sanchez and Anthony Martial.And Rooney, who became United’s record goalscorer before leaving in 2017, believes it is down to the team’s highly-paid stars to play with more pride and passion regardless of their issues with Mourinho.In an interview with Football Focus, published on the BBC Sport website, DC United striker Rooney said: “Obviously they are going through a difficult period at the minute, but Jose Mourinho is very experienced and I think some players have to do a little bit better.“In my experience, I have never seen or heard of a player not wanting to play in the game because they have had a falling out with the manager.“I don’t think as a player you could do that, you’ve got to respect the club and the fans and also respect your team-mates.“I don’t think any player, certainly at Manchester United, will be not playing for Jose, I’m sure they’re all working hard behind the scenes to get results.”0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)
Martin O’Neill 1 Republic of Ireland boss Martin O’Neill has named a provisional 39-man squad for the Euro 2016 qualifying play-off against Bosnia & Herzegovina.The squad will be trimmed ahead of the November 9 meeting date, although Reading midfielder Stephen Quinn still remains unavailable through injury.The Republic will travel to Zenica for the first leg on Friday, November 13, with the second leg at Dublin’s Aviva Stadium three days later.Speaking at a press conference on Wednesday afternoon, O’Neill said: “After finishing third in a difficult qualifying group, we enter into the play-offs against a very good team in Bosnia & Herzegovina.“Our fate is in our own hands and we will be doing all that we can to qualify for next summer’s finals.“We will play the second leg at the Aviva Stadium and that is a big plus for us because the Irish supporters were fantastic in our last game there against Germany and we know that there will be a similar atmosphere for this play-off.”The Republic finished third in their qualifying group, four points behind world champions Germany and three points adrift of second-placed Poland, who beat them 2-1 in the final Group D fixture this month.Republic of Ireland squad to face Bosnia and Herzegovina: David Forde (Millwall), Shay Given (Stoke City), Keiren Westwood (Sheffield Wednesday), Darren Randolph (West Ham United), Rob Elliot (Newcastle United), Richard Keogh (Derby County), Marc Wilson (Stoke City), Seamus Coleman (Everton), Cyrus Christie (Derby County), John O’Shea (Sunderland), Alex Pearce (Derby County), Shane Duffy (Blackburn Rovers), Ciaran Clark (Aston Villa), Paul McShane (Reading), Stephen Ward (Burnley), Greg Cunningham (Preston North End), Robbie Brady (Norwich City), James McCarthy (Everton), Jeff Hendrick (Derby County), Darron Gibson (Everton), Harry Arter (Bournemouth), Eunan O’Kane (Bournemouth), Glenn Whelan (Stoke City), Paul Green (Rotherham United), Aiden McGeady (Everton), James McClean (West Bromwich Albion), Alan Judge (Brentford), Anthony Pilkington (Cardiff City), David Meyler (Hull City), Jonathan Walters (Stoke City), Wes Hoolahan (Norwich City), Robbie Keane (LA Galaxy), Shane Long (Southampton), Daryl Murphy (Ipswich Town), Kevin Doyle (Colorado Rapids), Anthony Stokes (Celtic), David McGoldrick (Ipswich Town), Adam Rooney (Aberdeen), Simon Cox (Bristol City).
Vincent Janssen made his Premier League debut 1 It may only be game one of the new Premier League season, but Tottenham fans have taken an instant liking to Vincent Janssen.The Dutchman arrived from AZ in a £17m deal after top scoring in the Eredivisie with 27 goals and began against Everton on the bench.Spurs were trailing 1-0 when manager Mauricio Pochettino brought him on for Eric Dier and it wasn’t long before Tottenham were level.Here’s what some fans had to say about Janssen.
Letterkenny RFC under 18’s secured their place as winners of the Premier Division of the Ulster Carpet League – For immediate ReleaseLetterkenny RFC under 18’s secured their place as winners of the Premier Division of the Ulster Carpet League with an emphatic 71-0 victory over Carrickfergus at Dave Gallaher Park on Saturday. Letterkenny will now play the winners of division four for a place in the league final against the winners of the other semi final between division two and three top teams. Eleven try’s with eight conversions from the boot of Daniel Faulkner provided plenty of entertainment on a glorious morning for rugby. After a three week break Letterkenny were a little rusty and took a good twenty minutes to settle into this game against a physically strong but immobile Carrickfergus pack. The home pack soon settled with Diarmiud Gallagher and Will Douglas leading the charge from the second row. Aodhain O Neill impressed with his first start of the season in the number two shirt and the line out soon provided the quality ball that the back line required. The scores then began to flow with Kevin Grant running his first of there try’s after good hands through the backs. This was soon followed by a brace from number eight Joseph Dunleavy. The first from a rolling maul off a line out and the second from a strong charge from the base of the scrum.A number of changes at half time only added to the dominance of the home pack with the introduction of Stephen Holmes, Connor Cannon and Louis Carson. The second half was a much more controlled performance in every aspect from the home team with scores from Daniel Faulkner, Connor Cannon, Matthew Faulkner, Joseph Dunleavy, Kevin Grant and two for Bailey Loughlin. The latter two scores were a just reward for Bailey after all the hard work he has put in to come back from an early season injury.Team: Chris Green, Aodhain O Neill, David Ward, Will Douglas, Diarmiud Gallagher, Martin Molloy, Darragh Toal, Joseph Dunleavy, Ben Khavia, Peter Scott, Adam Boal Quinn, Daniel Faulkner (c), Matthew Faulkner, Oisin Toal, Kevin Grant, Stephen Holmes, Connor Cannon, Louis Carson, Jack McGarvey, Bailey Loughlin and John Fogarty.Photograph: Sean McGrory from Jigsaw Donegal presenting the match ball to Letterkenny captain Daniel Faulkner before their match against Carrickfergus on Saturday. Also in the photograph (l to r) Gordon Curley (head coach), Joseph Dunleavy and Martin Molloy. RUGBY NEWS: LETTERKENNY RFC U18’S WIN PREMIER DIVISION OF THE ULSTER LEAGUE was last modified: February 16th, 2016 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:letterkennyRUGBYSport
(Visited 23 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Marc Hauser, Harvard evolutionary psychologist who resigned under a cloud, was found guilty of scientific misconduct and admitted to some of it.Nature News reported: “Former Harvard University psychologist Marc Hauser has admitted to making ‘mistakes’ in his research that led to findings of research misconduct announced today by the US Office of Research Integrity, which polices research funded by the National Institutes of Health.”Hauser’s confession is reported by the Boston Globe. He admitted some mistakes, but stood by most of his work: “I am saddened that this investigation has caused some to question all of my work, rather than the few papers and unpublished studies in question.”The Harvard Magazine, though, printed a substantial list of misconduct investigators found, including fabricating data and falsely describing results. Hauser resigned last year when the investigation began. The magazine says, “he had planned to return to Harvard after his leave, but resigned following a psychology department faculty vote against having him resume teaching duties.” An update states that Harvard instigated the investigation and agrees with the US Office findings. (See note following our 12/24/2010 entry for first indications of misconduct.)The magazine stated, “Hauser studied the evolution of language and cognition, in research involving monkeys and humans.”In a column today in Nature unrelated to the Hauser investigation, Jim Woodgett of Mount Sinai Hospital wrote that scientists must be open about their mistakes. “The scientific community must be diligent in highlighting abuses, develop greater transparency and accessibility for its work, police research more effectively and exemplify laudable behaviour,” he warned. “This includes encouraging more open debate about misconduct and malpractice, exposing our dirty laundry and welcoming external examination.”Update 9/11/2012: Nature News reported that there are questions about whether Hauser intentionally committed misconduct. Outsiders cannot know due to privacy rules of the investigation. According to reporter Eugenie Samuel Reich, projects tainted by the misconduct were funded by the NIH up to $790,000. Now that Hauser is gone from Harvard, he has turned his attention to education, working with a company that develops computer games to teach students cognitive skills and self-control. “This work is deeply satisfying and I look forward to making new contributions to human welfare, education and the role of scientific knowledge in understanding human nature,” he said.Update 9/13/2012: Science Magazine 14 September gave a balanced report on the Hauser investigation, presenting views of accusers and defenders, as well as specifics on the alleged instances of misconduct. Apparently whistleblowers from his own lab tipped off Harvard’s investigation, which was followed up and confirmed by the ORI at NIH. Some of his colleagues call him solely responsible and are bothered by his refusal to accept responsibility: “It is sad that Hauser still will not admit to the charges that have been found against him when he does appear to nonetheless accept that the evidence exists and is legitimate,” Gerry Altmann wrote in an e-mail to Science. Some of his lab workers are now disgruntled that their work has been tainted by their association with him. Science noted that his “provocative work” garnered “media attention” and that the publication of his book Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong, “he had moved into the rarified sphere of the public intellectual.” Some colleagues in the evolutionary psychology community, nevertheless, are standing by him and downplaying the seriousness of the misconduct, some of which was not published. As part of the discipline, any research Hauser does with funding from the Public Health Service must be supervised, and he is barred from peer reviewing others’ work, for 3 years.Marc Hauser’s “research” was often reported in these pages. In 9/21/2005, we saw him referring to human capabilities as “the chimpanzee mind.” 5/29/2006, we found him joining the Darwin Centurions against the I.D. Visigoths. In 10/27/2006 and 11/06/2006, we saw his fellow Darwinists adoring his new book Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong (by natural selection). In the 2/22/2008 entry, we saw him engaging in “paleofantasy,” trying to rescue Darwin from the huge cognitive gulf between chimpanzees and human children. In 4/07/2009, we saw him divining into “the evolution of dogs and the evolution of humans.” In 7/06/2009, we saw him attributing animals’ ability to count to evolution. In 2/08/2010, just months before he was caught, we saw him trying to evolutionize religion to a point that even appalled Nature reporter Phillip Ball.This is the guy, you might remember, who taught his toddler to adore Charles Darwin: “When my youngest daughter was about three years old, I pulled a cheap trick on her, teaching her that whenever I asked ‘Who’s the man?’, she should reply ‘Darwin!’ She does this quite well now,” he said (see 7/03/2007 entry). Let’s hope his new work with students on Cape Cod does not involve this kind of Darwin brainwashing. Is this the person you want teaching your kid self-control?So while we don’t rejoice over anyone’s downfall, we are not surprised. Actually, we think Hauser should have been rewarded. Remember, he wrote a book about how “nature” (a.k.a. natural selection) produced our “moral minds,” our “sense of right and wrong.” It’s not really right or wrong, he said; it’s just a “sense” of it that the aimless, purposeless, amoral process of selection produced in us. Natural selection allows room for cheaters in its schemes for how morality evolved. Cheaters are not doing wrong; they’re just participants in the game (3/25/2010). Harvard needs cheaters like Marc Hauser to keep their evolutionary game going. It gives the “punishers” something to do (1/13/2010). Hauser actually played a vital role, therefore, at Harvard, and illustrated how evolutionary game theory was supposed to work (11/16/2009). Remember the evolutionist who said, “it becomes advantageous for some individuals to cheat, and vice versa, which allows co-existence between cheaters and cooperators to arise”? (4/07/2009).Yes! Reward Marc Hauser. He illustrated the morality of “the chimpanzee mind” in real-world experiments. The joke was on Harvard, not him. He really showed his daughter that Darwin is The Man. He is a consistent Darwinian. Should Harvard punish a faithful devotee of Darwin? Should the U.S. Office of Research Integrity punish someone who revealed that integrity is a farce, an illusion, a relic of natural selection? (7/23/2010) Reward the cheater! Reward all the Darwinian cheaters. We like that, because it will hasten the implosion of the Darwin totalitarian regime.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Matt ReeseIt is a sunny spring Wednesday in mid-May. Berry-smudged preschoolers accompanied by a flock of moms and numerous teachers create a buzz in the fields that drowns out the sounds of the pollinators at Stacy Family Farm in Washington County.Since 1899, the Stacy Family has farmed for generations on the fringe of Marietta, though most of the previous generations never saw field trips like the groups picking berries today. A changing food culture, evolving markets and a society far removed from the farm have made field trips a much more important part of the business than they used to be.“Strawberries start late and school is out early, so we have between 2,500 and 3,000 visitors maybe in a 3-week period. We bring them in from up to two hours away and they are here with us for around an hour and a half,” said Janet Stacy. “We hit on the second grade core standards and we host mostly preschool through second grade students. We talk about the weather. They get to see an observation bee hive. We show them the strawberry growing process. They get to pick berries when they are in season. Before that they get to do a pizza garden. They learn they can grow a pizza on the farm. It is all about educating the kids and sometimes educating the adults too.”The Stacys charge a small fee of $5 per person for the tours and, beyond the income, get a tremendous value by hosting them. The education component of the tours is increasingly important. The tours also make for good marketing as the students go home and tell their parents about the farm. Many stay after the tour and pick berries as well. The tours extend the harvest season to days other than the precious weekends in May and June for the u-pick strawberry business as well, said Bill “Farmer” Stacy.“We are close to 85% or 90% u-pick. We really push the u-pick as being a family experience. We do provide some picked berries for the senior citizens. Our big crop is strawberries. We’ll start with strawberries and we’ll dovetail into blueberries. We have blackberries and we have, for the first time this year, asparagus,” Bill said. “What we are seeing in other big u-pick areas is that it is going away. It is getting to be a more of a family event on the weekends and not as much people coming out to pick during the week to get a bunch to freeze. The school tours really help with getting people out during the week. We are trying to manage the crowds on the weekend and gear up for it.”The u-pick business presents a number of unique challenges.“With the u-pick, parking can be a challenge and with the kids especially, eating some berries while they pick is part of the fun of it, but we sometimes have issues with people eating too many. It can be also be a problem getting everything picked,” Bill said. “People are picking smaller amounts. Some people just want to pick a few for dinner. That means dealing with more people and you have to keep the smile up longer.”All of the products grown on the farm’s 120 acres in two locations — including tomatoes, a corn maze and pumpkins — are sold retail.“We don’t wholesale anything. We try to keep this local and local — local food and local help,” Bill said. “We have some professional pickers that come out and pick a bunch and resell them to double their money. I don’t even give them a discount and they can make good money reselling them.”The farm’s six acres of strawberries are grown on black plastic, which is a larger investment than other production methods, but it has numerous advantages.“The strawberry crop looks very good this year. The plastic helps with disease control. The berries are up on raised beds with high plastic and with all of the rain we’ve had this year, it gets the water away from the fruit to keep the disease away and it improves the quality of the fruit,” Bill said. “If you have a good crop, people remember that for a year. If you have a bad quality crop people will remember it for 3 years. When we got into this there were quite a few matted row growers in Ohio. The plastic was a marketing decision for us because it keeps the berries clean and dry. You can see the difference in the quality of the fruit. The plastic helps with the management too.”While much of Ohio has been swamped with too much moisture since last fall, parts of southeastern Ohio have had more average precipitation.“It has been about normal moisture for us this year. It is pretty amazing. We are sitting in this high-pressure system. It is sending everything up to Columbus and north,” Bill said. “In fact, the strawberry harvest is a little early for us this year. We had a few warm stretches and, since they are on the black plastic, that pushes them early.”The black plastic also helps the strawberry roots retain moisture and nutrients from the drip irrigation and keeps weeds under control. The sandy soils help too.“We have some upland sand that is outwash from the Ohio River and we have good natural drainage and plenty of water from our irrigation wells,” Bill said. “We monitor the soil moisture but we are usually pumping water to them every other day when the berries are on.”When the strawberry harvest is over, a cover crop is planted.”We plant sudangrass after strawberries with a broadcast spreader then scratch it in with a disk. We mow the grass a couple of times so it doesn’t get above waist high and leave clippings for organic matter in the soil,” Bill said. “We mow it one last time in August and moldboard plow it. Then we lay plastic and broadcast the ryegrass in between the rows to suppress weeds and provide a mat for people to walk on. We go through 3 weeks later in September and plant the strawberries. That takes about 2 days. We plant three different varieties to spread out the harvest season a bit.”Fertilizer application is based on soil tests and applied in multiple ways to meet the needs of the strawberry crop.“Before we moldboard plow, we apply 19-19-19 with micros based on soil samples. The strawberry ground is always strawberry ground. There is no rotation because it has to be the same for the u-pick,” said Todd Stacy, Bill and Janet’s son. “Cover crops help break up the cycle and always keep something growing there. Then we use greenhouse grade calcium nitrate fertilizer through growing season in the irrigation.”Disease and insect issues on the strawberries are addressed with sprays as needed.“We start scouting for disease from first bloom on,” Todd said. “The bloom is the most sensitive so we really have to protect that.”A preventative fungicides spray program every 7 to 10 days is used up until fruit harvest starts and then spot applications are used as needed.“We have good friends on the East Coast that are usually a couple of days ahead of us and so we see what is coming. We scout every day and we can see insect issues take over in a matter of days,” Bill said. “The spotted wing drosophila is a fruit fly that came in from China. We just have to manage it and watch the numbers. We test our fruit and make sure we don’t have any larvae in the fruit itself. You immerse the fruit in salt water and the larvae will come out. It is a big deal on the blueberries and blackberries. If we miss them, customers will come back and ask about the creepy crawlies in their blueberries. Strawberries get in and out before the insects get too bad. We have to scout for it and treat accordingly. “If we have a cold winter the spotted wing drosophila flies die here but they come up from the south. People ask me about spraying all the time and I tell them I would love to farm like my grandfather did without all of these invasive species coming in. All he had was corn earworm and cucumber beetle to worry about.”Through the generations, the Stacy family has worked hard to overcome the challenges required to provide high quality farm products, and now an increasingly valuable connection to the farm for consumers of all ages. Their efforts allow new generations of strawberry-stained children (and their parents) to find the unique and undeniable appeal of a berry patch on a sunny spring Wednesday.
Media collaboration website Frame.io is adding a whole new dimension to their current platform, including support for audio files PDFs, and 3D renders.If you’ve ever had to shuttle a video back and forth with a client for feedback, you know that it can be a strenuous task to write down timestamps and locate exactly what the client wants to show you. This is where Frame.io comes in. It’s a cloud-based media collaboration website that takes the hassle out of communicating with clients.Over 370,000 people now use Frame.io to share videos and collaborate on projects. Just last year, Frame.io closed on a $20 million Series B funding round led by FirstMark Capital, which has allowed them to increase the size and scale of the company. They have just announced that, this summer, we are going to see some drastic changes to their site that will open the platform up to all different kinds of media to become a one-stop shop for collaborative projects. Here are the new features you can expect in the coming months.All New Asset SupportIn the past, Frame.io only supported video files on their platform. With this new update, team members will be able to work together on both video and audio files — as well as PDFs and even 3D VR Content. This means you can collaborate on songs and audio projects seamlessly without any intermediary programs.I’ve been involved in so many email threads with too many attachments that were just a pain to sort through. Now, with audio and PDF support, your team can share and comment on any type of media that you may be using.New Organizational ToolsSearching for media has never been easier with Frame.io’s new updated organization system. Here’s what they have to say:“A new advanced media browser lets you fly through thousands of assets at lightning speed. Updated sorting options make it easier than ever to find exactly what you’re looking for. We also took search to a whole new level. In addition to searching for individual projects, you can now search filenames, approval status, and uploader across hundreds of projects, instantly.”For editors, that means no more frantically typing “FINAL COMPLETE V2 V3” to try and find your latest edit. All you have to do is search for the uploader’s name and go from there.They have also updated their upload framework, which boasts 5X the upload speed of Dropbox, making it one of the fastest upload speeds on the market today.New Commenting AbilitiesCommenting and collaborating on a video will be even easier with the new commenting abilities. It’s like if Slack had a video commenting function — the new Frame.io includes @ commenting, detailed time-stamping, and range timestamps to comment on a selection of video.
The appointment of a bureaucrat as the Vice-Chancellor of the country’s premier Forest Research Institute Deemed to be University (FRIDU) in Dehradun has been challenged before the Delhi High Court by a plea claiming that it was in contravention of the University Grants Commission (UGC) rules.IFS officer The petition has sought to quash the appointment of Dr. Savita, an Indian Forest Service (IFS) officer, as the Vice-Chancellor of FRIDU, claiming that she did not have the ‘requisite qualification’.The plea filed by Hilaluddin, a former scientist with the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), has claimed that the UGC’s minimum academic qualification for the post of Vice-Chancellor is a Ph.D degree and the candidate should have spent a minimum of 10 years as professor in a university.‘Not a scientist’ It added that Dr. Savita, also the Director of FRI, Dehradun, has never held the post of a professor at any university nor was she posted as scientist in any academic institution.During the hearing on the petition last month, the counsel appearing for the FRIDU Chancellor and V-C told the High Court that “there is no post of Vice-Chancellor of the Forest Research Institute, a deemed university and only the Director, Forest Research Institute is designated as a Vice-Chancellor”.Next hearing on Oct. 16 The High Court has asked the counsel to bring the documents which showed that there is no post of V-C before the next date of hearing on October 16.Mr. Hilaluddin, in a petition filed through advocate Gyanant Kumar Singh, has claimed that the appointment of Dr. Savita as the Vice-Chancellor in violation of UGC regulations was “illegally regularised through a resolution on March 30, 2016, by the FRIDU Board of Management, which included Dr. Savita”.The petition claimed that the Board’s resolution stood vitiated with the participation of Dr. Savita as Member Secretary in the meeting which was considering her case.It further alleged that “prior permission of the UGC was not obtained by the authorities of FRIDU before diluting academic qualification of the Vice-Chancellor and altering structure of its Board of Management as mandated by the UGC (Institutions Deemed to be University) Regulations 2010”.The plea has sought direction for termination of appointment of Dr. Savita from the post of Vice-Chancellor of FRIDU and filling up the post in a time-bound manner in accordance with the UGC regulations.
Behind the unprecedented Ebola outbreak in West Africa lies a species with an incredible power to overtake its host. Zaire ebolavirus and the family of filoviruses to which it belongs owe their virulence to mechanisms that first disarm the immune response and then dismantle the vascular system. The virus progresses so quickly that researchers have struggled to tease out the precise sequence of events, particularly in the midst of an outbreak. Much is still unknown, including the role of some of the seven proteins that the virus’s RNA makes by hijacking the machinery of host cells and the type of immune response necessary to defeat the virus before it spreads throughout the body. But researchers can test how the live virus attacks different cells in culture and can observe the disease’s progression in nonhuman primates—a nearly identical model to humans.Here are some of the basic things we understand about how Ebola and humans interact.What does Ebola do to the immune system?Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Once the virus enters the body, it targets several types of immune cells that represent the first line of defense against invasion. It infects dendritic cells, which normally display signals of an infection on their surfaces to activate T lymphocytes—the white blood cells that could destroy other infected cells before the virus replicates further. With defective dendritic cells failing to give the right signal, the T cells don’t respond to infection, and neither do the antibodies that depend on them for activation. The virus can start replicating immediately and very quickly.Ebola, like many viruses, works in part by inhibiting interferon—a type of molecule that cells use to hinder further viral reproduction. In a new study published today in Cell Host & Microbe, researchers found that one of Ebola’s proteins, called VP24, binds to and blocks a transport protein on the surface of immune cells that plays an important role in the interferon pathway.Curiously, lymphocytes themselves don’t become infected with the virus, but a series of other factors—a lack of stimulation from some cells and toxic signals from others—prevent these primary immune cells from putting up a fight.How does Ebola cause hemorrhaging?As the virus travels in the blood to new sites, other immune cells called macrophages eat it up. Once infected, they release proteins that trigger coagulation, forming small clots throughout the blood vessels and reducing blood supply to organs. They also produce other inflammatory signaling proteins and nitric oxide, which damage the lining of blood vessels, causing them to leak. Although this damage is one of the main symptoms of infection, not all patients exhibit external hemorrhaging—bleeding from the eyes, nose, or other orifices.Does the virus target certain organs?Ebola triggers a system-wide inflammation and fever and can also damage many types of tissues in the body, either by prompting immune cells such as macrophages to release inflammatory molecules or by direct damage: invading the cells and consuming them from within. But the consequences are especially profound in the liver, where Ebola wipes out cells required to produce coagulation proteins and other important components of plasma. Damaged cells in the gastrointestinal tract lead to diarrhea that often puts patients at risk of dehydration. And in the adrenal gland, the virus cripples the cells that make steroids to regulate blood pressure and causes circulatory failure that can starve organs of oxygen.What ultimately kills Ebola patients?Damage to blood vessels leads to a drop in blood pressure, and patients die from shock and multiple organ failure.Why do some people survive infection?Patients fare better with supportive care, including oral or intravenous rehydration that can buy time for the body to fight off infection. But studies on blood samples from patients during the 2000 outbreak of a different Ebola strain in Uganda have also identified genes and other markers that seem to be predictive of survival. Patients who recovered had higher levels of activated T cells in their blood and had certain variants of a gene that codes for surface proteins that white blood cells use to communicate. Earlier this year, researchers found a new association between survival and levels of sCD40L, a protein produced by platelets that could be part of the body’s attempt to repair damaged blood vessels. The authors note that markers like sCD40L could suggest new therapies that augment the repair mechanisms most important for survival.*Correction, 15 August, 1:51 p.m.: This article has been corrected to note that nitric oxide, not nitrous oxide, damages blood vessels.*The Ebola Files: Given the current Ebola outbreak, unprecedented in terms of number of people killed and rapid geographic spread, Science and Science Translational Medicine have made a collection of research and news articles on the viral disease freely available to researchers and the general public.